(Created 2011-09-01.)

THERMODYNAMICS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY | KFKA01 |

**Aim**

- One aim with the course is to introduce the classical thermodynamics for the students and also to exercise the students to use the different models presented in the course.
- Another aim is to introduce surface and colloidal chemistry for the students.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- know the first and second laws of thermodynamics and be able to calculate energy and entropy changes for temperature, volume and pressure changes.
- know the definitions of free energy and chemical potential and be able to use them for equilibrium calculations.
- know the thermodynamics of simple mixtures-mainly ideal solutions, but also simple models for nonideal systems. Be able to use activities and activity cofficients.
- be able to predict different colligative properties of a solution, such as osmotic pressure, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation, from the knowledge of the composition of the studied system.
- be able to use phase diagrams for two component systems
- understand the background to the equilibrium equation for a chemical system.
- be able to use different methods to measure surface tension.
- charactarize different types of surfactants.
- know what a micell is and the meaning of the critical micell concentration, cmc.
- know the meaning of: a liquid crystal , flotation, adsorption isotherms and colloidal stability.

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to calculate pressure, volume and temperature in ideal and nonideal gases.
- be able to determine the temperature and pressure dependence of the different phase equilibria in a one component system.
- be able to calculate the vapour pressur and boling point of a two component solution.
- be able to calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of equilibrium constants.
- be able to use a numerical calculator to solve equations and integrate and also to use the calculator in least square fits of experimental data to a polynom function.

*Judgement and approach*

For a passing grade the student must

- understand the validity of the models presented in the course.

**Contents**

The course treats two main areas are:

*Thermodynamics:*

Basic concepts of thermodynamics such as work and heat, entropy, enthalpy, free energy and chemical potential.

Equations of state for gases.

Calculations on reversible, irreversible and adiabatic processes.

Quantitative treatment of phase equilibrium in systems of one component.

Quantitative calculations of the relations between pressure, temperature and composition in non-ideal systems of two components with one or more phases. This includes concepts such as partial molar quantities and activity, calculations of colligative properties and a thermodynamic description of distillation.

Thermodynamic treatment of chemical equilibrium.

*Surface chemistry:*

The interfaces between a liquid phase and a gas. The surface tension and different experimental methodes to determine the surface tension of a solution. Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Kelvin equation.

Surfactants. Micelles; methodes to determine the critical micellar concentration (cmc). Liquid crystalline phases. Solubilisation.

Solid surfaces. Adsorption and wetting

Charged surfaces; the DLVO-theory.

**Literature**

Atkins, P W: Physical Chemistry, 9th Ed. Oxford 2009. ISBN: 9780199543373.

Complementary material, including problems, produced at the Department.

Laboratory handouts/instructions.