(Created 2011-09-01.)

THERMODYNAMICS | KFK080 |

**Aim**

- The aim with the course is to introduce the classical thermodynamics for the students and also to exercise the students to use the different models presented in the course.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to formulate and explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics and be able to calculate energy and entropy changes for changes in system states.
- be able to define and explain the definitions of free energy and chemical potential and be able to use them for equilibrium calculations.
- know the thermodynamics of simple mixtures and be able to predict different colligative properties solution, such as osmotic pressure, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation, from the knowledge of the composition of the studied system.
- be able to formulate and explain the thermodynamic basis for chemical equilibrium

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to calculate pressure, volume and temperature in ideal and nonideal gases.
- show ability to, both practically and theoretically, determine properties of phase equilibria for one and two component systems, such as the temperature and pressure dependence of vapour pressure and boling point.
- show ability to determine the relations between equilibrium constant, concentations, pressure and temperature in chemical equilibria, both practically and theoretically,
- be able to use a pocket calculator to solve numerical problems, such as derivation, integration, determination of implicit variables and least square fits of experimental data to a polynom function.
- be able to use phase diagrams for two component systems
- be able to write simple, but complete, reports of laboratory experiments
- be able to judge the validity of the fundamental thermodynamic models presented, such as ideal gases and ideal solutions.

*Judgement and approach*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to discuss everyday phenomena on the basis of thermodynamical reasoning
- Be able to judge information in the surrounding world (for example in media) on the basis of thermodynamical reasoning.

**Contents**

- Basic concepts of thermodynamics such as work and heat, entropy, enthalpy, free energy and chemical potential.
- Equations of state for gases.
- Calculations on reversible, irreversible and adiabatic processes.
- Quantitative treatment of phase equilibrium in systems of one component.
- Quantitative calculations of the relations between pressure, temperature and composition in non-ideal systems of two components with one or more phases. This includes concepts such as partial molar quantities and activity, calculations of colligative properties and a thermodynamic description of distillation.
- Thermodynamic treatment of chemical equilibrium.
- Thermodynamics applied to liquid and solid surfaces.

**Literature**

Atkins, P W: Physical Chemistry, 9th ed. Oxford University Press 2009. ISBN: 9780199543373.

Complementary material, including problems, produced at the Department.

Laboratory handouts/instructions.