(Created 2011-09-01.)

THE PHYSICS OF LOW-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES AND QUANTUM DEVICES | FFF042 |

**Aim**

This course concerns artificial materials with substructure on the nanometer scale such that the electronic motion is restricted to two, one or zero dimensions. The emphasis is on semiconductor heterostructures but also other low-dimensional systems will be discussed. The concepts and the underlying theory are introduced based on quantum mechanics and extended by the application to heterostructures. After the lecture part of the course is completed, the student will work on a project within a research group for about 1,5 weeks. The project work will be presented orally as well as in writing.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to calculate and explain the basic electronic structure of realistic heterostrucutres using quantum mechanical models.

- be able to calculate optical and transport properties of 0-, 1- and 2-dimensional systems.

- be able to describe applications of low-dimensional structures in for instance photonics and electronics.

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to plan, implement and evaluate an advanced research project.

- be able to write well structured reports that summarizes, explains and analyses experimental and/or theoretical work.

- be able to present his/her own results in an oral presentation.

- be able to independently search and find information beyond the course literature.

- be able to chose approximations and models based on experience and knowledge of physics in general

**Contents**

Heterostructure concepts and low dimensional systems such as quantum wells, nanowires and quantum dots. Quantum physics applied to such systems. Optical properties of low dimensional systems (transition rules, polarization etc). Transport properties of 2D and 1D systems. Quantized conductance with Landauer-formalism. Scattering phenomena in 1D. Devices based on quantum phenomena and Coulomb blockade.

**Literature**

Davies, J H: The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press 1997. ISBN: 052148491X.

Lecture notes.