(Created 2010-07-25.)

THERMODYNAMICS | KFK080 |

**Aim**

- The aim with the course is to introduce the classical thermodynamics for the students and also to exercise the students to use the different models presented in the course.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to formulate and explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics and be able to calculate energy and entropy changes for temperature, volume and pressure changes.
- Be able to define and explain the definitions of free energy and chemical potential and be able to use them for equilibrium calculations.
- Know the thermodynamics of simple mixtures-mainly ideal solutions, but also simple models for nonideal systems. Be able to use activities and activity cofficients.
- Be able to predict different colligative properties of a solution, such as osmotic pressure, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation, from the knowledge of the composition of the studied system.
- Understand the background to the equilibrium equation for a chemical system

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to calculate pressure, volume and temperature in ideal and nonideal gases.
- Be able to determine the temperature and pressure dependence of the different phase equilibria in a one component system.
- Be able to calculate the vapour pressur and boling point of a two component solution.
- Be able to calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of equilibrium constants.
- Be able to use a numerical calculator to solve equations and integrate and also to use the calculator in least square fits of experimental data to a polynom function.
- Be able to use phase diagrams for two component systems
- Be able to judge the validity of the models presented.

*Judgement and approach*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to discuss everyday phenomena on the basis of thermodynamical reasoning
- Be able to judge information in the surrounding world (for example in media) on the basis of themrodynamical reasoning.

**Contents**

- Basic concepts of thermodynamics such as work and heat, entropy, enthalpy, free energy and chemical potential.
- Equations of state for gases.
- Calculations on reversible, irreversible and adiabatic processes.
- Quantitative treatment of phase equilibrium in systems of one component.
- Quantitative calculations of the relations between pressure, temperature and composition in non-ideal systems of two components with one or more phases. This includes concepts such as partial molar quantities and activity, calculations of colligative properties and a thermodynamic description of distillation.
- Thermodynamic treatment of chemical equilibrium.
- Thermodynamics applied to liquid and solid surfaces.

**Literature**

For chemical engineering students: Atkins, P W: Physical Chemistry, 9th ed. Oxford University Press 2009. ISBN: 0199543372.

For biotechnology students: Dill, K and Bromberg, S: Molecular driving forces. Statistical thermodynamics in Chemistry and Biology. Taylor & Francis Inc 2002. ISBN: 0815320515.

Complementary material, including problems, produced at the Department.

Laboratory handouts/instructions.