(Created 2009-08-11.)

FLUID MECHANICS | VVR120 |

**Aim**

The objective of the course is to give a thorough knowledge in fluid mechanics with application for problems within hydraulics and water supply using earlier knowledge in calculus, mechanics, physics, and hydrology.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- explain and use concepts like pressure and pressure forces, shear stress, density, viscosity, surface tension, laminar/turbulent flow, pressure head, velocity head, energy head, friction head losses, local head losses, drag force, pressure drag, uniform/non uniform flow, steady/unsteady flow, control volume, no-slip condition, pump curve.
- describe pressure and energy conditions in pipes using hydraulic grade lines and energy lines
- describe the flow in channels and rivers in terms of sub- and supercritical flow and presence of critical sections.
- describe methods to measure pressure, flow rates, and velocities

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- structure and solve static problems in fluid mechanics based on the pressure-density-height relationship
- structure and solve dynamic problems in fluid mechanics using the continuity equation, energy equation, momentum equation, Darcy-Weisbach's formula, and Manning's formula
- design dams, pipes, and channels
- analyze the flow in rivers and channels
- use terms within fluid mechanics both in speech and writing

*Judgement and approach*

For a passing grade the student must

- be able to critically evaluate problem solutions within fluid mechanics
- be able to qualitatively evaluate uncertainties and risks within sustainable use of fluid mechanics principles

**Contents**

Physical properties of fluids, especially water. Hydrostatics including pressure distribution in fluids, forces on plane and curved submerged surfaces, centre of pressure. Basic concepts in fluid mechanics, laminar and turbulent flow. The fundamental equations: the continuity equation, the energy equation, and the momentum equation. Flow around immersed bodies. Applications: pipe flow, pump systems, rivers and channels. Fluid measurement: pressure, velocity, and flow rate.

**Literature**

Hamill L., Understanding hydraulics, 2nd ed., Palgrave, 2001, ISBN 0333779061

Malm J. and Larsson R., Hydraulics examples, Dept. of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, KF Sigma, 2006.

Supplementary material.