The purpose of this course is to give students specialising in water resources engineering a possibility to acquire expert knowledge in hydrology and to prepare them for research tasks in this area.
Knowledge and understanding
For a passing grade the student must
Scales in hydrology. Spatial and temporal variations in water availability. Hydrology of different climatic regions. Hydrological regimes in Sweden.
Rainfall measurement. Raingauge networks. Frequency-duration-intensity relationships. Probable Maximum Precipitation. Orographic and convective rainfall. Altitude dependence.
Physical characteristics and properties of snow. Measurement of snowfall and snowpack. Snowmelt. Energy budgets. The degree-day method. Water percolation in melting snow.
Groundwater-surface water interaction. Hillslope hydrology. Run-off, run-on, and subsurface water flow processes.
Global energy flows. Vertical energy flows. Basic sensors. Evapotranspiration. Land-climate interaction. NOPEX.
The drainage basin. Basic characteristics. The water budget. Floods and droughts. Reservoirs. Backwater curves.
Surface runoff. Runoff generation processes. The unit hydrograph. Time of concentration. Kinematic wave. Dynamic wave. The time-area method.
Infiltration. Moisture distribution in a vertical profile. Capillary pressure and retention curves. The motion equation. Relative permeability. Preferential flow and hydrophobicity phenomena in soils. Structured soils and macropores. Measurement of soil water.
Physically based runoff models: The Stanford Watershed Model. The SHE Model.
Conceptual runoff models. The HBV model. Experience from various applications.
Urban hydrology. Characteristics of the urban catchment. The drainage network and its impacts on water quality and quantity. Snow in the urban environment.
Lake hydrology. Impacts on water quality and quantity. Seasonal variations of lake regimes.
TO BE SUPPLEMENTED