(Created 2008-07-17.)

HYDROMECHANICS | VVR090 |

**Aim**

The objective of the course is to provide a physical understanding of phenomena and concepts in advanced water flows and to introduce calculation methods to analyze a number of important hydraulic problems. The course deals mainly with free-surface flows with emphasis on open-channel hydraulics.

*Knowledge and understanding*

For a passing grade the student must

- Possess a solid understanding of the basic phenomena and processes that govern free-surface flows
- Be able to formulate advanced models based on the governing equations for free-surface flows and to solve the equations for commonly encountered flow situations
- Be able to analyze complex flow problems using dimensional analysis and to develop rules for experiments with scale models
- In detail understand the impact of flowing water on submerged bodies and structures

*Skills and abilities*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to quantitatively analyze different situations involving free-surface flows with regard to flow conditions, water depth, water velocity, forces etc.
- Be able to formulate rules for hydraulic model experiments and to determine the main dimensionless parameters that govern a specific flow problem
- Be able to quantify the impact of flowing water on submerged bodies and structures

*Judgement and approach*

For a passing grade the student must

- Be able to present the basis for analyses and calculations, including simplifications and assumptions made, when formulating mathematical models
- In quantitative terms be able to communicate the results of analyses performed to a qualified group of stakeholders
- Be able to critically review studies and reports dealing with problems within advanced free-surface flows

**Contents**

Hydraulic models, similitude, dimensionless numbers such as the Reynolds number and the Froude number. Dimensional analysis with Buckinghams pi-theorem. Boundary layer theory. Surface drag and form drag. Open channel flow in general. The energy principle with specific energy, flow controls, critical flow, Froude number. The momentum principle with the hydraulic jump. Uniform channel flow with Mannings formula and methods of calculation. Theory and analysis of gradually varying channel flow. Water surface profiles and numerical methods for the calculation of water depths. Spatial change of flow in channels. Practical views on channel design. Discharge measurements in channels. Weirs and flumes. Flow measurements in pipelines. Rapidly varying channel flow - bridge piers, control of the hydraulic jump.

**Literature**

French, R.: Open Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, 1994 Vennard, J. & Street, R.: Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, 6th edition, 1982 (three chapters)+

handouts